NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Sciences Geography Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources
Class 8 geography chapter 3 mineral and energy resources ncert textbook questions solved
Answer the following questions.
(i) Name three common minerals you use every day.
(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas.
(iv) What energy sources would you suggest?
(a) rural areas (b) coastal areas (c) dry areas
(v) List five ways you can save energy at home.
(i) Three minerals that we commonly use in our daily lives are copper, iron and salt.
(ii) Ore is the raw metal found in the earth mixed with other materials or impurities.
They are generally found in igneous or metamorphic rocks.
(iii) Two natural gas rich regions in India are Jaisalmer and the Krishna Godavari Delta.
(iv) (a) For rural areas, solar power and wind power are viable options. There aren't many high-rise buildings that can act as a barrier to the sunlight or break the momentum of the wind. ”
(b) For coastal areas, wind power and tidal power are good choices.
(c) For arid regions, wind energy and solar energy are feasible for reasons similar to those in rural areas.
(v) Five ways to save energy at home:
- Promote the use of solar energy as much as possible.
- Using biogas as fuel for cooking.
- Drying clothes in sunlight instead of electric dryers to avoid emissions and unnecessary power consumption.
- avoiding misuse of electricity; Turning off fans and lights when not needed.
- Using pressure cookers for cooking.
Tick the correct answer:
(i) Which of the following characteristics is not a characteristic of minerals?
(a) They arise through natural processes.
(b) They have a specific chemical composition.
(c) They are inexhaustible.
(d) Their distribution is uneven.
(ii) Which of the following is not a manufacturer of mica?
(d) Andhra Pradesh
(iii) Which of the following is a world leading copper producer?
(iv) Which of the following practices will not conserve LPG in your kitchen?
(a) Soak the dal for some time before cooking it.
(b) cooking food in a pressure cooker.
(c) Keep the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas to cook.
(d) Cooking food in an open pan held on a low flame.
(i) (c), (ii) (b), (iii) (c), (iv) (d).
(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully considered before huge dams are built.
(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”.
(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental problem.
- For the following reasons:
- Dams upset the balance of the earth.
- Deforestation leads to pollution.
- people are expelled.
- Cities/villages/small towns are being relocated, causing untold difficulties for people.
- Flood threatens big.
- threat of earthquakes.
- silting up of lakes is a problem.
(ii) The presence of coal mines close to industries reduces transportation costs and also ensures easy availability of fuel.
(iii) Petroleum is a very valuable fossil fuel. It is used to operate all types of machines, transport vehicles, from bicycles to airplanes.
(iv) Pits are not covered after mining, so they may cause environmental hazards.
Distinguish between the following.
(i) Conventional and non-conventional energy sources.
(ii) biogas and natural gas.
(iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals.
Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Energy Resources Practice Questions
Choose the right option.
(i) Which of these is a nonmetallic mineral?
(a) Iron Ore
(ii) Which continent produces more than half of the world's tin?
(d) South America
(iii) Which continent is the leading iron ore producer in the world?
(a) North America
(iv) Which state is a major bauxite producing area?
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu
(v) What is the name of the electricity generated from coal?
(a) Nuclear Power
(b) Heat Output
(c) Fossil Fuel
(d) None of the above
(vi) Which of these is a conventional source?
(c) Natural Gas
(d) All dies
(vii) Which of these is called buried sunshine?
(c) Solar Energy
(d) Tidal Energy
(i) (c), (ii) (b), (iii) (c), (iv) (b), (v) (b), (vi) (d), (vii) (b).
Fill in the blank fields to complete each sentence.
- Metallic minerals are divided into …………….. and ………….
- Gold and silver are …………. minerals.
- Minerals can be extracted by …………., …………., or …………
- Deep holes dug to reach mineral deposits are called ………….
- Metallic minerals are generally found in ……….. and …………..rock formations.
- Mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: …………… the Appalachian Region and the Western Mountain Ranges.
- …………… is the largest bauxite producer in the world.
- …………. is the most abundant fossil fuel available.
- Oil is drilled from ………
- Bhakra Nangal is an important …………….. station in India.
- …………… and ……… are radioactive metals.
- ferrous, non-ferrous
- Mining, Drilling, Quarry
- magmatic, metamorphic
- the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes
- Uran, Thorium.
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true (T) or false (F).
- All ores are rocks, but not all rocks are minerals.
- Quarrying is good for the environment.
- Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are found in layers of sediment.
- Coal is more prevalent in the Canadian Shield region than in the Appalachian Mountains.
- Chile and Peru are leading copper producers.
- Kolar in Karnataka has large silver deposits.
- Copper is an element used in almost everything.
- Bauxite is the ore of aluminum.
- Nuclear energy can be generated from the nuclei of most elements.
Match the information in column I correctly to that in column II.
(i) (d), (ii) (a), (iii) (b), (iv) (c), (v) (e).
Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Natural and Energy Resources Very Short Answer Types Questions
Distinguish between a rock and an ore.
A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals. An ore is a rock from which minerals are mined.
Quarrying is an extraction process in which minerals near the surface are simply dug up.
Name the leading tin producers in Asia.
China, Malaysia and Indonesia are leading tin producers in Asia.
Name two areas in Australia that have large gold deposits.
Two areas of Western Australia with large gold deposits are Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie.
Name two minerals that India plays a significant role in extracting.
India has vast deposits of high quality iron ore and is also a leading salt producer.
In which industry is silicon important? What ore is it extracted from?
Silicon is important in the computer industry. It is extracted from quartz.
Why are minerals considered non-renewable?
Minerals take thousands of years to form. The formation rate is much smaller than the consumption rate. Therefore, we classify them as non-renewable.
Why is coal called "buried sunshine"?
Coal is called "buried sunshine" because it is found buried underground and is as important a source of energy as sunshine.
Why are petroleum and its derivatives referred to as "black gold"?
Petroleum and its derivatives are black in color but are as valuable as gold, which is why we refer to it as “black gold”.
What is natural gas?
Natural gas is a fossil fuel extracted from petroleum deposits in oil fields.
Which was the first country to develop hydroelectric power?
Norway was the first country to develop hydroelectric power.
Name some important Hydel power plants in India.
The Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagaijunasagar and Damodar Valley projects are major Hydel power plants in India.
Name nuclear power plants in India.
Kalpakkam, Tarapur, Ranapratap Sagar, Narora and Kaiga are the nuclear power stations in India.
Give biogas an advantage over natural gas.
Biogas is a renewable energy source, while the amount of natural gas is limited.
Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Natural and Energy Resources Short answer type questions
Name and briefly describe methods of extraction.
Mining, drilling and quarrying are methods of extraction. Mining is a process of extracting minerals from rock beneath the earth's surface.
- Open pit mining: Minerals lying at a shallow depth are mined by removing the top layer.
- Shaft mining: Deep boreholes (so-called shafts) are drilled in order to reach ore deposits at great depths.
- Drilling: This involves drilling deep wells to extract minerals.
- Quarrying: It is the quarrying process of extracting minerals very close to the surface by simply digging them up.
Where are minerals found?
Minerals are found in different types of rock. Metallic minerals are usually found in igneous and metamorphic rocks that form large plateaus. Examples: Iron ore is found in northern Sweden, copper and nickel in Canada. Iron, nickel, chromite and platinum are found in igneous and metamorphic rocks in South Africa. Nonmetallic minerals are found in sedimentary rock formations. Limestone deposits are found in France. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are found in layers of sediment.
Describe the mineral distribution in North America.
Mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region to the north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the Rocky Mountains to the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield region and coal in the Appalachia region. The Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.
Write down common uses of minerals.
Minerals are important in many industries. Minerals used in gemstones are usually very hard. These are then set in different jewelry styles. Iron and copper are metals that are used in almost everything. Copper is present in everything from coins to pipes and power cords. Silicon, extracted from the mineral quartz, is the basis of the computer industry. Aluminum, extracted from bauxite ore, and its alloys are used in aircraft due to their light weight. Aluminum is also used in kitchenware.
How is electricity produced from hydropower?
Hydroelectric power is generated from the energy possessed by water falling from great heights. River water is stored in dams. When rainwater or river water falls from a height, it flows over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The rotor blades are connected to a generator that uses this energy to generate electricity. This electricity is called hydroelectric power. The water discharged after production is used for irrigation.
Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Natural and Energy Resources Long answer type questions
Name and describe some unconventional energy sources.
Non-conventional energy sources are those energy sources that have recently come into use due to the depletion of conventional resources and growing awareness. Solar power, wind power, geothermal power, nuclear power and tidal power are examples of non-conventional energy sources.
Solar energy is the heat and light energy captured from the sun. Solar cells help convert this energy into electricity. Solar energy is used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers, etc.
Wind energy is the energy possessed by moving air (wind). Windmills are used to convert wind energy into electricity. Wind farms with clusters of windmills in coastal regions and mountain passes.
Nuclear power is the energy possessed by the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium, etc.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy extracted from the earth's interior. The temperature in the earth's interior increases the deeper we go. This heat is used to generate electricity. It is accessible in the form of hot springs. Tidal energy is the energy generated by tides. It is utilized by building dams at narrow sea openings.
Biogas is a gaseous fuel obtained from the decomposition of organic waste such as dead plant and animal material or animal manure and kitchen waste. It is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and is environmentally friendly.
Write down the pros and cons of non-conventional energy sources.
- Non-conventional energy sources are mostly inexhaustible. They don't pollute the environment.
- Nuclear power is emitted in large quantities.
- Most non-conventional energy sources cost less.
- These forms of energy are safe to use and clean.
- Windmills are expensive to build. Their use for wind energy is therefore expensive, although the electricity generated from them is cheap.
- The erection of windmills interferes with radio and television broadcasts.
- Harnessing tidal energy destroys the natural habitats of wildlife.
- In addition, tidal energy is difficult to harness.
- The production of nuclear energy from radioactive material generates radioactive waste. It's also expensive.
- While biogas is useful and renewable, it contributes to the greenhouse effect.
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